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“Annuity due” is a financial term that you may encounter when you are borrowing money, paying rent, saving for retirement or purchasing an annuity. Annuity due means that a payment is due at the beginning of the time period in question. That distinguishes it from ordinary present value of an annuity due definition and meaning annuity, which means the payment is due at the end of the period rather than at the beginning. A regular annuity is a series of equal cash flows occurring at equally spaced time periods. In a regular annuity, the first cash flow occurs at the end of the first period.

Julia Kagan is a financial/consumer journalist and former senior editor, personal finance, of Investopedia. Carbon Collective is the first online investment advisor 100% focused on solving climate change. We believe that sustainable investing is not just an important climate solution, but a smart way to invest. Carbon Collective partners with financial and climate experts to ensure the accuracy of our content.

## How Do You Calculate the Future Value of an Annuity Due?

The first payment is received at the start of the first period, and thereafter, at the beginning of each subsequent period. The payment for the last period, i.e., period n, is received at the beginning of period n to complete the total payments due. Given this information, the annuity is worth \$10,832 less on a time-adjusted basis, so the person would come out ahead by choosing the lump-sum payment over the annuity.

Therefore, the present value is \$1,000 and its future value is \$1,1000. Again, we are comparing the future values for both Mr. Cash and Mr. Credit, and we would like them to be the same. Similar to the future value to arrive at the PVAD we multiply the PVA to (1 + rate) to get the value of \$1,59,332.09. In our illustrative example, we’ll calculate an annuity’s present value (PV) under two different scenarios.

## Timing of payments

A good example of this kind of calculation is a savings account because the future value of it tells how much will be in the account at a given point in the future. This means that \$10 in a savings account today will be worth \$10.60 one year later. And the person paying, of course, has that much less time to make the money work for them. An ordinary annuity, on the other hand, is a payment you make at the end of a period.

The smallest discount rate used in these calculations is the risk-free rate of return. Treasury bonds are generally considered to be the closest thing to a risk-free investment, so their return is often used for this purpose. The discount rate reflects the time value of money, which means that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future because it can be invested and potentially earn a return.

## How Does Ordinary Annuity Differ From Annuity Due?

Examples of ordinary annuities include home mortgages, because you pay for the month preceding the payment due date. In the previous section we looked at the basic time value of money keys and how to use them to calculate present and future value of lump sums. In this section we will take a look at how to use the BAII Plus to calculate the present and future values of regular annuities and annuities due. As you might imagine, the future value of an annuity refers to the value of your investment in the future, perhaps 10 years from today, based on your regular payments and the projected growth rate of your money. If yes, then use that knowledge to make sure that your savings are invested. You don’t want to leave the money just sitting in your current account.

The trade-off with fixed annuities is that an owner could miss out on any changes in market conditions that could have been favorable in terms of returns, but fixed annuities do offer more predictability. The overall approximation is accurate to within ±6% (for all n≥1) for interest rates 0≤i≤0.20 and within ±10% for interest rates 0.20≤i≤0.40. The calculations for PV and FV can also be done via Excel functions or by using a scientific calculator. Imagine that you have just retired, and that you have a nest egg of \$1,000,000. This is the amount that you will be drawing down for the rest of your life.

## Variability of payments

Annuity means repeating payments every month at the beginning of each period. An annuity is structured such as all the annuities paid are of the same amount and are made at equal intervals (for example payments are made every six months in one year) and are made at the beginning of each period. It follows that if one has to choose between receiving \$100 today and \$100 in one year, the rational decision is to choose the \$100 today. This is because if \$100 is deposited in a savings account, the value will be \$105 after one year, again assuming no risk of losing the initial amount through bank default. Thus, the present and future values of an annuity-due can be calculated.

### What is the difference between PV of annuity and annuity due?

The present value of an annuity due takes this into account and therefore has a higher present value when compared to an ordinary annuity. This is because with an annuity due, the payments are made at the beginning of each period, so the annuitant receives them sooner, resulting in a higher present value .